Sierra LeoneDownload light PDF version

Vue d'ensemble

Depuis la fin de la dramatique guerre civile en 2002, la Sierra Leone a tenu deux élections présidentielles et mené à bien une opération internationale de construction de la paix. Une Cour spéciale de justice a été mise en place en 2002 pour traiter des crimes de guerre commis depuis 1996 ; les premiers accusés ont été portés devant cette Cour.

La nouvelle stabilité a suscité un regain d’activité économique. La Sierra Leone fait partie des dix premiers producteurs mondiaux de diamants. Le pays est parmi les plus gros producteurs de titane, de bauxite. Il est également un gros producteur d’or.

Sur le plan régional, la Sierra Leone est un Membre fondateur de l’Union du fleuve Mano (MRU) dont la vocation est le renforcement de la coopération économique avec la Côte d'Ivoire, la Guinée et le Liberia. Cependant, au même titre que son voisin le Liberia, le pays souffre d’un manque criant d’infrastructures de transport qui hypothèque son intégration dans l’économie régionale.

Cadre institutionnel

Government type:

Constitutional democracy


Constitution: 1 October 1991; amended several times

 


Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

Administrative division
3 provinces and 1 area*: Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*

Executive branch:
  • Chief of state: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
  • Head of government: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007)
  • Cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (124 seats; 112 members elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; members to serve five-year terms)

Judical branch:
Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court

Political parties:
  • All People's Congress or APC;
  • Peace and Liberation Party or PLP;
  • People's Movement for Democratic Change or PMDC;
  • Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 August 2007 and 8 September 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

Election results: :second round results; percent of vote - Ernest Bai KOROMA 54.6%, Solomon BEREWA 45.4%

Central bank: Central Bank of Sierra Leone

Military branches:

Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF): Army (includes Maritime Wing and Air Wing)


Military age and obligations:

17 years 6 months of age for male and female voluntary military service (younger with parental consent); no conscription; candidates must be HIV negative (2009)


Membership in regional organisations:

AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, MRU, Cen-sad


Source: CIA Factbook, Country Profile Sierra Leone

Indicateurs régionaux

Land boundaries:

958 km


Border countries:

Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km


Coastline:

402 km


Airports: 9, including 1 with paved runways

Railways: -

Roadways:

11 300 km; paved: 904 km; unpaved: 10 396 km (2002)


Waterways:

800 km (600 km navigable year round) (2009)


Ports and terminals:

Freetown, Pepel, Sherbro Islands


Dynamiques démographiques

  • Population 2010: 5 868 000
  • Projection 2050: 12 446 000
  • Population < 15 years: 2523240 (43% * 5868000)
  • Population density:  82/sq. km
  • Urban agglomeration: Freetown (901 000 =15.4%)
  • Annual Growth: 2.60% (2005-2010) > 2.09% (2010-2015)
  • Woman fertility (children per women): 5.22 (2005-2010)> 4.73
  • Median age: 18.4
  • Dependency ratio:  81

Migration and Mobility

  • Number of emigrants (2010): 267 000 =4.6% of pop
  • Number of immigrants (2010): 106 800 = 1.8% of pop
  • Top destination countries: Guinea, the United Kingdom, the United States, Liberia, Germany, the Netherlands, Nigeria, The Gambia, Canada, Australia
  • Refugees within country: 7 800 (2009)

 

Indicateurs économiques

  • GDP total: USD  5 128 million
  • GDP per capita: USD 879
  • Annual Growth: 3.2%
  • Average growth (2002-10): 8.7%
  • Currency: leones (SLL)
  • Inflation Rate: 9.2%
  • Main Exports: diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish
  • Main Export partners: Belgium 27%, US 12%, Netherlands 8%, UK 7.5%, Cote d’Ivoire 6.2%, China 4.4%, Greece 4.1% (2009)
  • Main Imports: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals
  • Main import partners: South Africa 14.6%, China 7.6%, Malaysia 6.7%, US 5.9%, Côte d'Ivoire 5.6%, France 5.1%, India 4.7%, UK 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2009)
  • Trade balance: USD -187 million
  • Foreign Direct Investment inflows: USD 33 million (2008)
  • Estimated Diaspora Remittances 2009: 2.3% of GDP
  • = USD 47 million
  • = USD 8 per capita
  • ODA received 2009: USD 437 million
  • =as % of GDP: 8.52%
  • =per capita: 74.47 USD
  • Category: Low income (2011)
  • Public Spending on:

•    Education as a percentage of total government expenditure (2000-2007): NA.
•    Health as a percentage of total government expenditure (WHO, 2009): 7.8%
•    Military: USD  42.9  million =2.4% of GDP (2008 e)

  • External Debt: USD  683 million (2009)
  • Debt service (as % of Exports 2010e): 4%
  • Public finance (% of GDP 2009):

•    Revenue and grants: 19.7%
•    Expenditures and net lending: 22.9%
•    Overall balance:-3.2

  • IMF Adjustment Programme:  yes
  • Corruption Perception Index (xx/10):  2.4 (134/178)
  • Index of Economic Freedom (xx/100):  49.6 (149/179)
  • WB Doing Business Index: 143/183
  • Ibrahim African Governance index: 49.1

 

Sécurité alimentaire

Global Hunger Index (IFPRI, 2011): 25.2

Food supply (kcal per capita/day) 2 128

Number of people undernourished:
1.8 million

:Percentage of people undernourished:

35%

Child malnutrition, underweight: 30%

Child malnutrition, stunting: 40%

Land use


Land area (1 000 ha): 7 162

Agricultural land area (1 000 ha):
3 415

Arable land (1 000 ha):

1 795

Permanent crops (1 000 ha): 135

Pastures (1 000 ha): 2 200

Irrigated land (1 000 ha): 30

Share in total water use by
  • agriculture: 92.1%
  • industry: 2.6%
  • domestic use: 5.3%

Forest area (1000 ha): 2 726

Source: FAOStat and FAO Country Profile

Indicateurs sociaux

Religion & Ethnicity

  • Ethnic Groups : Temne 35%, Mende 31%, Limba 8%, Kono 5%, Kriole 2% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century; also known as Krio), Mandingo 2%, Loko 2%, other 15% (includes refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, and small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians) (2008 census)
  • Major Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs 30%

Health

  • Life Expectancy: 47.4 (2005-2010)
  • Under-five Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births) (2008): 194
  • Number of physicians (for 100 000 people) (2004): 3.1
  • Hospital Beds (for 10 000 people): 4 (2006)
  • Estimated HIV prevalence (2007): 1,7%

Education:

  • Adult literacy rate: (% age 15 and above): 39,8% (2008)
  • Youth Literacy Rate: 55,7% (2008)
  • Net Primary Enrolment Ratio: 1322205 (2007)
  • Net Secondary Enrolment Ration: 239579 (2007)
  • Tertiary Students: N.A
  • University attendance Ration: N.A

ICT & Media:

  • Internet Access (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 0.26
  • Internet domain: .sl
  • International dialing code: 232
  • Mobile line (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 20.36
  • Main telephone line (per 100 inhabitants) 2009: 0.58

Basic Services:

  • Access to electricity 2007: kWh 58 millions
  • Water supply coverage 2008: 49% (urban 86%, rural 26%)
  • Sanitation coverage 2008: 13% (urban 24%, rural 6%)